What is Logic, what are different logical systems and how did they evolve?
This unit will walk you through the history of logic from Aristotle to the modern state of the art, we will see how Logic is used in different scientific areas, namely : Physics, Biology, Medicine, Economics, Statistics, Engineering, Computer science ... and the list goes on.
Actually, if not for Logic : the scientific inquiry, and any intellectual inquiry in general, would be impossible to begin with. That is : We cannot do science without Logic, and that is the reason I insist that Logic is one of the first topics that should be discussed and investigated. In short : If you cannot think rationally and logically, do not bother! I mean, seriously.
Personally, I think the main reason one should take some time to learn Logic and rational thinking, that is : Knowing how to appraise arguments to determine what is valid and consistent enough to make a good argument (either deductively or inductively), is to constrain oneself to strict and concrete rules, and to keep oneself away from emotional judgement or confirmation bias as far as systematic inquiry is concerned.
Now, I am not saying that 'emotions' are bad, I am just saying that one should know at least where one's emotionally, religiously or politically influenced assumptions and intuitions are flawed, and what one can do to devise and strengthen arguments in favor of one's cause.
To learn Logic, and first of all, you should realize that Logic is not about acquiring knowledge or seeking truth about a subject matter, Logic is not mainly about answers, it is about the steps taken to reach those answers, that is, the underlying structure that makes up the components of our thinking patterns and arguments. So, even if your answers are true, it does not matter as long as your Logic is flawed.
Second, Logic is not the same thing as 'intuition', intuition is about predetermined, 'ready-to-use' patterns of thought, which we acquired from our day-to-day life. And, as we will see throughout these lessons, intuition may fail us where Logic works to fix the glitch in our thought.
Third, Logic changes you .. You will not turn into another "Mr.Spock", but instead : You will realize how your most of your judgments and emotions are not really as conclusive as they might sound or feel otherwise.
Finally, I hope you enjoy these articles and lessons, Stay skeptical and rational.